Ion transport and crystallization in inorganic building materials as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance
ArticlePel, L., Huinink, H.P. & Kopinga, K. (2002). Ion transport and crystallization in inorganic building materials as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. Applied Physics Letters, 81(15), 2893-2895. In Scopus Cited 69 times.
Salt weathering is a major cause of deterioration of buildings and monuments of cultural heritage. We have determined the underlaying moisture and ion transport within a representative building material by measuring the time evolution of NaCl-saturated samples during one-sided drying using nuclear magnetic resonance. The measured NaCl concentration profiles reflect the competition between advection to the surface and redistribution by diffusion. By representing the measured moisture and NaCl profiles in an efflorescence pathway diagram (EPD) the crystallization is also taken into account. The pathways followed in the EPD indicate that for historical objects in general, crystallization at the surface cannot be avoided. ©2002 American Institute of Physics.