Rapid trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation of five-membered heterocycles by means of photoredox catalysis in continuous flow
ArticleStraathof, N.J.W., Gemoets, H.P.L., Wang, X., Schouten, J.C., Hessel, V. & Noel, T. (2014). Rapid trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation of five-membered heterocycles by means of photoredox catalysis in continuous flow. ChemSusChem, 7(6), 1612-1617. In Scopus Cited 60 times.
Trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated heterocycles are important building blocks for the synthesis of numerous pharmaceutical products, agrochemicals and are widely applied in material sciences. To date, trifluoromethylated and perfluoroalkylated hetero-aromatic systems can be prepared utilizing visible light photoredox catalysis methodologies in batch. While several limitations are associated with these batch protocols, the application of microflow technology could greatly enhance and intensify these reactions. A simple and straightforward photocatalytic trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation method has been developed in continuous microflow, using commercially available photocatalysts and microflow components. A selection of five-membered hetero-aromatics were successfully trifluoromethylated (12 examples) and perfluoroalkylated (5 examples) within several minutes (8–20 min).