Cytokine IL1α and lactate as markers for tissue damage in spineboard immobilisation. A prospective, randomised open-label crossover trial
ArticleHemmes, B., de Wert, L.A., Brink, P.R.G., Oomens, C.W.J., Bader, D.L. & Poeze, M. (2017). Cytokine IL1α and lactate as markers for tissue damage in spineboard immobilisation. A prospective, randomised open-label crossover trial. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 75, 82-88. In Scopus Cited 1 times.
Background Spinal immobilisation using a rigid long spineboard is a well-established procedure in trauma care. During immobilisation, the body is exposed to high tissue-interface pressures. This may lead to a localised inflammatory response of the skin, which may be used to monitor the body's response to different types of immobilisation device. Aim In this study we compared the standard rigid spineboard with a new soft-layered spineboard regarding tissue-interface pressures, skin redness as an indicator of reactive hyperaemia and cutaneous IL1α and lactate release. Methods Twelve healthy male participants were asked to lie supine on both a rigid and a soft-layered spineboard, loading the sacrum for one hour, followed by one hour in unloaded position. Tissue-interface pressures on the buttocks during loading were measured continuously using a pressure mapping mat. Cutaneous IL1α and lactate concentrations were assessed using Sebutapes, during 20-min periods. After each 20-min period, a photo of the buttocks was taken, which was later assessed for redness by two observers. Results Significant differences in tissue-interface pressure and reactive hyperaemia were found between the two types of spineboard. Release of IL1α and lactate were found to increase with prolonged exposure to pressure, and to decrease in the unloaded prone position. A significant relationship was found between tissue-interface pressure and reactive hyperaemia, but not with IL1α nor lactate release. Time course of IL1α and lactate release was similar for both types of spineboard. Conclusions IL1α and lactate both have a strong relationship with pressure exposure time, but not with pressure magnitude. Furthermore, IL1α was measured even in the absence of visible redness of the skin. The study offers the potention of biomarkers, reflecting inflammation and/or tissue metabolism, for use in assessing the effects of prolonged spineboard support.