Paul Hamers (Dr.)

Chemical Looping Combustion: Electricity production with CO2 capture in packed bed reactors

Sponsors ECN and TNO

Introduction

Due to concerns about the environment, methods for decreasing anthropogenic CO2 emission to the atmosphere are studied. Except of introducing renewable energy and reducing energy consumption, CO2 capture can be required to meet the CO2 emission reduction goals. A disadvantage of most of the CO2 capture technologies is that much additional energy is consumed, but this is not the case for chemical-looping combustion (CLC). In CLC, direct contact between air and fuel is circumvented, so that CO2 is obtained without nitrogen dilution.

Concept

In chemical-looping combustion (CLC) electricity is generated and CO2 can be captured with a low energy penalty. Fuel and oxygen are contacted via an intermediate oxygen carrier, a metal/metal oxide that is alternately oxidized and reduced.

The principle of CLC is that the fuel combustion process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the oxygen carrier is oxidized with air. This oxidation is an exothermic reaction and power is generated from the hot exhaust gas. The oxygen carrier is afterwards reduced via reaction with a fuel and a product gas mixture of CO2/H2O is obtained, circumventing energy intensive separation steps for the CO2 capture.

In the past, this concept in a packed bed reactor has been proven experimentally.

Objective

In this study the packed bed chemical looping combustion process is further developed investigating the possibilities of using syngas as fuel. The process engineering aspects for efficient energy production by CLC are studied, including:

·         Oxygen carrier material screening

·         Packed bed reactor design

·         System integration with power plant and techno-economic evaluations

Activities

In this study the fixed bed chemical looping combustion process will be further developed investigating the possibilities of using syngas as fuel. The process engineering aspects for efficient energy production by CLC are studied, including:

·         Oxygen carrier material screening

·         Packed bed reactor design

·         System integration with power plant

·         Techno-economic evaluations

Based on this, a validated model will be developed that can be used for the prediction of the performance of this technology on full scale (integrated with the power train).

 

The project is a part of CATO-2 program. CATO-2 is the Dutch national R&D program for CO2 capture, transport and storage. A consortium of nearly 40 partners cooperates to make governments plans realistic.