Experimenting in the city : unpacking notions of experimentation for sustainability
HoofdstukSengers, F., Berkhout, F., Wieczorek, A. J. & Raven, R. (2016). Experimenting in the city : unpacking notions of experimentation for sustainability. In J. Evans, A. Karvonen & R. Raven (Eds.), The experimental city (pp. 15-31). (Routledge Research in Sustainable Urbanism). London: Routlege.
This chapter articulates a comprehensive definition of the notion of ‘experimentation’ in the context of urban sustainability transitions. Highlighting a number of key dimensions, we argue that experiments can be analysed according to the degree to which they are (1) inclusive, (2) systemic, (3) practice-based, (4) challenge-led and (5) adaptive in the face of uncertainty and ambiguity in fostering socio-technical change. We point out a number of urban governance challenges related to coordination, commitment and negotiation, and we highlight a number of promising avenues for future research on experimenting in the city.