IMOS: Indium-phosphide Membrane on Silicon

We gratefully acknowledge support by the ERC Advanced Grant "NOLIMITS".

The combination of high performance III-V lasers and components with Silicon circuits has received considerable attention, spawning the research field of Silicon Photonics. Our vision for the future direction of this research sees photonic and electronic circuits which are increasingly integrated as performance requirements increase. To ensure the highest bandwidths and the best sensitivities, and energy consumption, we see a direct transition to photonic membrane technologies and the introduction of nanophotonic integration processes on top of electronic ICs. We are pioneering the attachment of thin, high-index membranes with photonic ICs bonded directly on top of Silicon and CMOS wafers. This presents an excellent route to photonic miniaturisation and the shortening of lossy electrical connections.

Our IMOS approach which is in essence a back-end processing step applying Indium Phosphide Membranes on Silicon – offers a route to using the best materials for the key photonic functions for gain, phase and polarization manipulation within one photonic plane. This monolithic solution is already proven to ensure low reflection components, and thus the capability to achieve large-scale reproducible circuits. We realise both active and passive functions in a thin InP Membrane On Silicon (IMOS). We demonstrated a number of high quality passive devices in this technology and we are making sustained progress with our active components. We have started a novel program on electrically injected Photonic Crystal lasers and membrane-based optical amplifiers for integration with other nanophotonic circuitry in thin (200 nm) InP-Membranes on Silicon (IMOS). One of the new passive devices realized is a polarization converter, which showed record performance (>99% conversion with <1 dB loss) and is the shortest membrane-based polarization converter reported so far. Low-loss photonic wires (3 dB/cm), high quality ring resonators (Q>10000) and low insertion loss couplers have also been achieved. Mach-Zehnder interferometers and various resonator structures have been realized, with good performances. Also, in cooperation with ICFO in Barcelona we have demonstrated opto-optical switching in ring resonators with “Phase Change Materials” (PCMs). Our future roadmap envisages the addition of this component set to Electronic ICs to reduce packaging complexity, and ultimately for chip-level communications.

Selected publications:
Dolores Calzadilla, V.M., Heiss, D. & Smit, M.K. (2014). Highly efficient metal grating coupler for membrane-based integrated photonics. Optics Letters, 39(9), 2786-2789.
Jiao, Y., Pello, J., Millan Mejia, A.J., Shen, L., Smalbrugge, E., Geluk, E.J., Smit, M.K. & Tol, J.J.G.M. van der (2014). Fullerene-assisted electron-beam lithography for pattern improvement and loss reduction in InP membrane waveguide devices. Optics Letters, 39(6), 1645-1648.
Pello, J., Muneeb, M., Keyvaninia, S., Tol, J.J.G.M. van der, Roelkens, G.C. & Smit, M.K. (2013). Planar concave grating demultiplexers on an InP-membrane on sillicon photonic platform. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 25(20), 1969-1972.
Keyvaninia, S., Verstuyft, S., Pathak, S., Lelarge, F., Duan, G.H., Bordel, D., Fédéli, J.-M., Vries, T. de, Smalbrugge, E., Geluk, E.J., Bolk, J., Smit, M.K., Roelkens, G.C. & Thourhout, D. Van (2013). III-V-on-silicon multi-frequency lasers. Optics Express, 21(11), 13675-13683.
Keyvaninia, S., Verstuyft, S., Landschoot, N. van, Lelarge, F., Duan, G.H., Messaoudene, S., Fédéli, J.-M., Vries, T. de, Smalbrugge, E., Geluk, E.J., Bolk, J., Smit, M.K., Thourhout, D. Van & Roelkens, G.C. (2013). Heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon distributed feedback lasers. Optics Letters, 38(24), 5434-5437.
Keyvaninia, S., Roelkens, G.C., Thourhout, D. Van, Jany, C., Lamponi, M, Liepvre, A. Le, Lelarge, F., Make, D., Duan, G.H., Bordel, D. & Fédéli, J.-M. (2013). Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V SOI single wavelength tunable laser. Optics Express, 21(3):177925
Keyvaninia, S., Muneeb, M., Stankovic, S., Veldhoven, P.J. van, Thourhout, D. Van & Roelkens, G.C. (2013). Ultra thin DVS-BCB adhesive bonding of III-V wafers dies and multiple dies to a patterned silicon-on-insulator substrate. Optical Materials Express, 3(1), 35-46.
Pello, J., Tol, J.J.G.M. van der, Keyvaninia, S., Veldhoven, P.J. van, Ambrosius, H.P.M.M., Roelkens, G.C. & Smit, M.K. (2012). High-efficiency ultrasmall polarization converter in InP membrane. Optics Letters, 37(17), 3711-3713.
Tol, J.J.G.M. van der, Zhang, R., Pello, J., Bordas, F., Roelkens, G.C., Ambrosius, H.P.M.M., Thijs, P.J.A., Karouta, F. & Smit, M.K. (2011). Photonic integration in indium-phosphide membranes on silicon. IET Optoelectronics, 5(5), 218-225.
Hofrichter, J., Raz, O., Liu, L., Morthier, G., Horst, F., Regreny, P., Vries, T. de, Dorren, H.J.S. & Offrein, B.J. (2011). All-optical wavelength conversion using mode switching in InP microdisc laser. IET Electronics Letters, 47(16), 927-929.
Liu, L., Kumar, R., Huybrechts, K., Spuesens, T., Roelkens, G.C., Geluk, E.J., Vries, T. de, Regreny, P., Thourhout, D. Van, Morthier, G. & Baets, R.G.F. (2010). An ultra-small, low power all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip. Nature Photonics, 4, 182-187.
Thourhout, D. Van, Spuesens, T., Selvaraja, S.K., Liu, L., Roelkens, G.C., Kumar, R., Morthier, G., Rojo-Romeo, P., Mandorlo, F., Régreny, P., Raz, O., Kopp, C. & Grenouillet, L. (2010). Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics,16(5), 1363-1375.
Kumar, R., Liu, L., Roelkens, G.C., Geluk, E.J., Vries, T. de, Karouta, F., Regreny, P., Thourhout, D. Van, Baets, R.G.F. & Morthier, G. (2010).10GHz all-optical gate based on a III-V/SOI microdisk. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 22(13), 981-983.
Kumar, R., Liu, L., Roelkens, G.C., Geluk, E.J., Vries, T. de, Karouta, F., Regreny, P., Thourhout, D. Van, Baets, R.G.F. & Morthier, G. (2010). 10-GHz All-optical gate based on a III-V/SOI Microdisk. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 23(13), 981-983.
Binetti, P.R.A., Leijtens, X.J.M., Vries, T. de, Oei, Y.S., Di Cioccio, L., Fédéli, J.-M., Lagahe, C., Van Campenhout, J., Thourhout, D. Van,Veldhoven, P.J. van, Nötzel, R. & Smit, M.K. (2010). InP/InGaAs photodetector on SOI photonic circuitry. IEEE Photonics Journal, 2(3), 299-305.
J. Van Campenhout, P.R.A. Binetti, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X.J.M. Leijtens, D. Van Thourhout, T. de Vries, Y.S. Oei, P.J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. Di Cioccio, J.M. Fedeli, M.K. Smit and R. Baets, "Low-footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 21(8):522-524, 2009.
P.R.A. Binetti, R. Orobtchouk, X.J.M. Leijtens, B. Han, T. de Vries, Y.S. Oei, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, P.J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel and M.K. Smit, "InP-based Membrane Couplers for Optical Interconnects on Si", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 21(5):337-339, Mar 2009.